Advanced Wound Care Therapies for Non-Healing Diabetic, Venous, and Arterial Ulcers: A Systematic R
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Yayıncı Createspace Independent Pub ( 05 / 2013 ) ISBN 9781484893586 | Büyük boy | 21,59x27,94x1,07 cm. | İngilizce | 184 Sayfa | Türler
Chronic ulcers (i.e., ulcers that are unresponsive to initial therapy or that persist despite appropriate care) are estimated to affect over 6 million people in the United States. The incidence is expected to increase as the population ages and as the number of individuals with diabetes increases. Chronic ulcers negatively affect the quality of life and productivity of the patient and represent a substantial financial burden to the health care system. Lower extremity ulcers, especially those attributed to either diabetes, venous disease, or arterial disease comprise a substantial proportion of chronic ulcers. Approximately 15% to 25% of individuals with diabetes develop a foot ulcer at some point in their lifetime and an estimated 12% of those patients require lower extremity amputation. Healing is complicated by diabetic neuropathy and susceptibility to infection. Venous disease accounts for the majority of chronic lower extremity ulcers. Venous hypertension secondary to various causes results in damage to vessel walls and ultimately leads to skin breakdown. Arterial ulcers are less common and are a result of impaired circulation which can affect healing lead to ulceration. Standard treatment for diabetic ulcers includes debridement of necrotic tissue, infection control, local ulcer care, mechanical off-loading, management of blood glucose levels, and education on foot care. For venous ulcers, standard treatment typically includes the use of mechanical compression and limb elevation to reverse tissue edema and improve venous blood flow. Care for ulcers caused by arterial insufficiency is centered on reestablishing blood flow and minimizing further loss of tissue perfusion. If ulcers do not adequately heal with standard treatment, additional modalities may be required - these are often termed "advanced wound care therapies." Lower extremity ulcers are frequently classified etiologically as diabetic, venous or arterial, though overlap may exist. Treatment modalities