Risk Management of Less Lethal Options : Evaluation, Deployment, Aftermath, and Forensics
Force used to quell out-of-control demonstrations or detain unruly individuals can result in litigation and bad press for law enforcement agencies. Injury or loss of life can best be avoided if agencies have accurate knowledge and proper training in less lethal options. Risk Management of Less Lethal Options: Evaluation, Deployment, Aftermath, and Forensics discusses how lessons learned from major disturbances have helped law enforcement professionals develop concepts and techniques that police departments can apply to increase successful outcomes, manage risk, and limit liability.
The methods presented in this book were developed over a decade of testing, training, evaluating, deploying, analyzing, and testifying related to the use of these tools. Topics include:
- The evolution of the less lethal paradigm through the analysis of the outcomes of major incidents
- Categories of less lethal options—including impact, chemical, electrical, and distraction
- Riot-control agents (RCAs), which produce rapid sensory irritation or disabling physical effects that disappear within a short time
- Less lethal impact munitions (LLIMs) that deliver blunt trauma, including the study of their capabilities and limitations
- Important factors for developing a successful less lethal training program
- Challenges caused by arrest-related death, in-custody death, and Excited Delirium Syndrome (ExDs)
- The use and forensic analysis of conducted electrical weapons (CEWs)/Tasers
- Effective post-event report writing, evidence collection, and court preparation
Risk management of less lethal options requires a complex, multi-tiered approach. This volume provides law enforcement professionals with guidelines to manage risk from the street to the courtroom when utilizing less lethal options to subdue offenders.