Rules for Writers 8e
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Temin süremiz 49 - 70 iş günü
Yayıncı Bedford Books ( 11 / 2015 ) ISBN 9781457683046 | 13,69x20,83x2,46 cm. | İngilizce | 688 Sayfa | Türler Eğitim | Dil /Yabancı Dil
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Preface for instructors The Writing Process 1 Exploring, planning, and drafting a Assess the writing situation. b Explore your subject. c Draft and revise a working thesis statement. d Draft a plan. e Draft an introduction. f Draft the body. g Draft a conclusion. h Manage your files. 2 Revising, editing, and reflecting a See revision as a social process. b Use peer review: Revise with comments. c Use peer review: Give constructive comments. d Highlights of one student’s peer review process e Approach global revision in cycles. f Revise and edit sentences. g Proofread the final manuscript. h Sample student revision i Prepare a portfolio; reflect on your writing. 3 Building effective paragraphs a Focus on a main point. b Develop the main point. c Choose a suitable pattern of organization. d Make paragraphs coherent. e If necessary, adjust paragraph length. Academic Reading, Writing, and Speaking 4 Reading and writing critically a Read actively. Sample annotated article b Outline a text to identify main ideas. c Summarize to deepen your understanding. d Analyze to demonstrate your critical reading. Writing guide: Analytical essay e Sample student writing: Analysis of an article Sample analysis paper 5 Reading and writing about multimodal texts a Read actively. Sample annotated advertisement b Outline to identify main ideas. c Summarize to deepen your understanding. d Analyze to demonstrate your critical reading. e Sample student writing: Analysis of an advertisement Sample analysis of an advertisement 6 Reading and writing arguments a Distinguish between reasonable and fallacious argumentative tactics. b Distinguish between legitimate and unfair emotional appeals. c Judge how fairly a writer handles opposing views. d When writing arguments, consider purpose and context. e View your audience as a panel of jurors. f In your introduction, establish credibility and state your position. g Back up your thesis with persuasive lines of argument. h Support your claims with specific evidence. i Anticipate objections; counter opposing arguments. j Build common ground. k Sample student writing: Argument Sample argument paper Writing guide: Argument essay 7 Speaking confidently a Identify your purpose, audience, and context. b Prepare a presentation. c Focus on delivery. d Remix an essay for a presentation. Clarity 8 Prefer active verbs. a Active versus passive verbs 1 b Active versus be verbs c Subject that names the actor 9 Balance parallel ideas. a Parallel ideas in a series b Parallel ideas presented as pairs c Repetition of function words 10 Add needed words. a In compound structures b that c In comparisons d a, an, and the 11 Untangle mixed constructions. a Mixed grammar b Illogical connections c is when, is where, and reason . . . is because 12 Repair misplaced and dangling modifiers. a Limiting modifiers b Misplaced phrases and clauses c Awkwardly placed modifiers d Split infinitives e Dangling modifiers 13 Eliminate distracting shifts. a Point of view (person, number) b Verb tense c Verb mood, voice d Indirect to direct questions or quotations 14 Emphasize key ideas. a Coordination and subordination b Choppy sentences c Ineffective or excessive coordination d Ineffective subordination e Excessive subordination f Other techniques 15 Provide some variety. a Sentence openings b Sentence structures c Inverted order 16 Tighten wordy sentences. a Redundancies b Unnecessary repetition c Empty or inflated phrases d Simplifying the structure e Reducing clauses to phrases, phrases to single words 17 Choose appropriate language. a Jargon b Pretentious language, euphemisms, "doublespeak" c Slang, regional expressions, nonstandard English d Levels of formality e Sexist language f Offensive language 18 Find the exact words. a Connotations b Specific, concrete nouns c Misused words d Standard idioms e Clichés f Figures of speech Grammar 19 Repair sentence fragments. a Subordinate clauses b Phrases c Other fragmented word groups d Acceptable fragments 20 Revise run-on sentences. a Revision with coordinating conjunction b Revision with semicolon, colon, or dash c Revision by separating sentences d Revision by restructuring 21 Make subjects and verbs agree. a Standard subject-verb combinations b Words between subject and verb c Subjects joined with and d Subjects joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor e Indefinite pronouns f Collective nouns g Subject following verb h Subject, not subject complement i who, which, and that j Words with plural form, singular meaning k Titles of works, company names, words mentioned as words, gerund phrases 22 Make pronouns and antecedents agree. a Singular with singular, plural with plural (indefinite pronouns, generic nouns) b Collective nouns c Antecedents joined with and d Antecedents joined with or, nor, either . . . or, or neither . . . nor 23 Make pronoun references clear. a Ambiguous or remote reference b Broad reference of this, that, which, and it c Implied antecedents d Indefinite use of they, it, and you e who for persons, which or that for animals or things 24 Distinguish between pronouns such as I and me. a Subjective case for subjects and subject complements b Objective case for objects c Appositives d Pronoun following than or as e we or us before a noun f Subjects and objects of infinitives g Pronoun modifying a gerund 25 Distinguish between who and whom. a In subordinate clauses b In questions c As subjects or objects of infinitives 26 Choose adjectives and adverbs with care. a Adjectives to modify nouns b Adverbs to modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs c good and well, bad and badly d Comparatives and superlatives e Double negatives 27 Choose appropriate verb forms, tenses, and moods in Standard English. a Irregular verbs b lie and lay c -s (or -es) endings d -ed endings e Omitted verbs f Verb tense g Subjunctive mood Multilingual Writers and ESL Challenges 28 Verbs a Appropriate form and tense b Passive voice c Base form after a modal d Negative verb forms e Verbs in conditional sentences f Verbs followed by gerunds or infinitives 29 Articles a Articles and other noun markers b When to use the c When to use a or an d When not to use a or an e No articles with general nouns f Articles with proper nouns 30 Sentence structure a Linking verb between a subject and its complement b A subject in every sentence c Repeated nouns or pronouns with the same grammatical function d Repeated subjects, objects, and adverbs in adjective clauses e Mixed constructions with although or because f Placement of adverbs g Present participles and past participles as adjectives h Order of cumulative adjectives 31 Prepositions and idiomatic expressions a Prepositions showing time and place b Noun (including -ing form) after a preposition c Common adjective + preposition combinations d Common verb + preposition combinations Punctuation 32 The comma a Independent clauses joined with and, but, etc. b Introductory elements c Items in a series d Coordinate adjectives e Nonrestrictive and restrictive elements f Transitions, parenthetical expressions, absolute phrases, contrasts g Direct address, yes and no, interrogative tags, interjections h he said, etc. i Dates, addresses, titles, numbers j To prevent confusion 33 Unnecessary commas a Between two words, phrases, or subordinate clauses b Between a verb and its subject or object c Before the first or after the last item in a series d Between cumulative adjectives, an adjective and a noun, or an adverb and an adjective e Before and after restrictive or parenthetical elements f Before essential concluding adverbial elements g After a phrase beginning an inverted sentence h Other misuses 34 The semicolon a Between independent clauses not joined with a coordinating conjunction b Between independent clauses linked with a transitional expression c In a series containing internal punctuation d Misuses 35 The colon a Before a list, an appositive, or a quotation b Conventional uses c Misuses 36 The apostrophe a Possessive nouns b Possessive indefinite pronouns c Contractions d Not for plural numbers, letters, abbreviations, words as words e Misuses 37 Quotation marks a Direct quotations b Quotation within a quotation c Titles of short works d Words as words e With other punctuation marks f Misuses 38 End punctuation a The period b The question mark c The exclamation point 39 Other punctuation marks a The dash b Parentheses c Brackets d The ellipsis mark e The slash Mechanics 40 Abbreviations a Titles with proper names b Familiar abbreviations c Conventional abbreviations d Units of measurement e Latin abbreviations f Plural of abbreviations g Misuses 41 Numbers a Spelling out b Using numerals 42 Italics a Titles of works b Names of ships, spacecraft, and aircraft c Foreign words d Words as words, letters as letters, numbers as numbers 43 Spelling a Spelling rules b The dictionary c Words that sound alike d Commonly misspelled words 44 The hyphen a Compound words b Hyphenated adjectives c Fractions and compound numbers d With certain prefixes and suffixes e To avoid ambiguity or to separate awkward double or triple letters f Word division 45 Capitalization a Proper vs. common nouns b Titles with proper names c Titles and subtitles of works d First word of a sentence e First word of a quoted sentence f First word after a colon Grammar Basics 46 Parts of speech a Nouns b Pronouns c Verbs d Adjectives e Adverbs f Prepositions g Conjunctions h Interjections 47 Sentence patterns a Subjects b Verbs, objects, and complements c Pattern variations 48 Subordinate word groups a Prepositional phrases b Verbal phrases c Appositive phrases d Absolute phrases e Subordinate clauses 49 Sentence types a Sentence structures b Sentence purposes Research 50 Thinking like a researcher; gathering sources a Manage the project. b Pose questions worth exploring. c Map out a search strategy. d Search efficiently; master a few shortcuts to finding good sources. e Conduct field research, if appropriate. f Write a research proposal. 51 Managing information; taking notes responsibly a Maintain a working bibliography. b Keep track of source materials. c Take notes carefully to avoid unintentional plagiarism. 52 Evaluating sources a Think about how sources might contribute to your writing. b Select sources worth your time and attention. c Select appropriate versions of online sources. d Read with an open mind and a critical eye. e Assess Web sources with care. f Construct an annotated bibliography. Writing guide: Annotated bibliography Writing Papers in MLA Style 53 Supporting a thesis a Form a working thesis. b Organize your ideas. c Use sources to inform and support your argument. d Draft an introduction for your thesis. e Draft the paper in an appropriate voice. 54 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism a Understand how the MLA system works. b Avoid plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources. 55 Integrating sources a Summarize and paraphrase effectively. b Use quotations effectively. c Use signal phrases to integrate sources. d Synthesize sources. 56 Documenting sources in MLA style a MLA in-text citations b MLA list of works cited c MLA information notes 57 MLA manuscript format; sample research paper a MLA manuscript format b Sample MLA research paper Writing Papers in APA Style 58 Supporting a thesis a Form a working thesis. b Organize your ideas. c Use sources to inform and support your argument. 59 Citing sources; avoiding plagiarism a Understand how the APA system works. b Avoid plagiarism when quoting, summarizing, and paraphrasing sources. 60 Integrating sources a Summarize and paraphrase effectively. b Use quotations effectively. c Use signal phrases to integrate sources. d Synthesize sources. 61 Documenting sources in APA style a APA in-text citations b APA list of works cited 62 APA manuscript format; sample paper a APA manuscript format b Sample APA research paper Appendixes A document design gallery Glossary of usage Answers to lettered exercises Index
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