Secret Connections in Constantinople
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This book aims to demonstrate how the Italian nationalist ideas were a catalyst to the creation of national unity and freedom to the Turkish people, prompting a drive for freedom that originated from the élite and moved to the masses in a top-down manner. The conspiracy ideas particularly of Giuseppe Mazzini, one of the greatest figures in the Italian national struggle, gave strong impetus to the birth of the pre-republican Young Turks. Giuseppe Garibaldi permanence in Turkey, his contacts with the Italian Workers Society in Constantinople, his letters and deep connections with Europe disclosed the idea that, the birth of the Turkish Republic, was ideologically supported by Italian Carbonari kinds of associations. In order to illustrate this link, the book observes the role of some eminent delegates of the Italian Workers Association and the Italian Freemasonry in Istanbul/Constantinople and other provinces of the Ottoman Empire.