In the past few years there has been an increasing recognition of the multiplicity of sensory and motor areas of the cerebral cortex. However, still relatively little is known about the way in which sensory areas are functionally linked to motor areas. On the basis of current anatomical evidence, there are three major pathways involved in this linking. One of these routes is by way of cortico-cortical links, beginning in the primary sensory areas of the cortex, and connecting via a series of synaptic relays to motor or premotor areas. There are also two massive subcortical routes. One of these involves the basal ganglia, the other the cerebellum. This book focuses on current research on the structure and functions of these three pathways and their role in the sensory guidance of movement. Motor psychophysicists have made progress in characterizing the nature of movements such as reaching and grasping, and how such movements are modified by incoming sensory information. Anatomical studies have revealed important new information about the ways in which sensory information is relayed to the basal ganglia and cerebellum. There is now a volume of scanning evidence about the activity of brain areas in humans and recordings from individual neurons in animals during sensory guided movement. This book summarizes much of this recent knowledge and provides a forum for suggesting new avenues for further study. The topics covered also have important implications for understanding the role of these pathways in human disease.
Table of Contents:
Visual Determinants of Grasping Movements.
Vision for Perception and Vision for Action in the primate Brain.
Sensory Input and Control of Grip.
Motor Areas on the Medial Wall of the Hemisphere.
Grasping Objects and Grasping Action Meanings: The Dual Role of Monkey Rostroventral Premotor Cortex (Area 5).
Posterior Parietal Cortex and the Sensory Guidance of Movement.
How Does Visual Information Instruct the Motor System.
Cortical Mechanisms in Directed Reaching.
Cortical Control of Whole-Arm Motor Tasks.
The Importance of the Cortico-Motoneural System for Cortical Control of Grasp.
Role of the Cerebellum in Co-Ordinating Movements.
Construction of a Reach-to-Grasp.
Cerebellum and the Visual Guidance of Movement.
The Cerebellum and Predictive Control.
Internal Models for Motor Control.
Basic Science and Disorders of Movement.